Now available in America, Flavay® is the authentic OPC licensed and sold in France for endothelial function and other vascular benefits since 1950.

A Safe, Non-Drug, Natural Approach to Cardiovascular and Circulatory Health

60 Years of Vascular Research

Licensed and sold for vascular health in France for more than 60 years, the vascular protective activity of Flavay® has been established by many significant studies. (1-4)

Flavay® has been sold worldwide for vascular health and extensively tested in humans for more than 60 years. The vascular protective activity of Flavay® has been established by many significant studies, demonstrating several important ways in which Flavay® may mitigate the risk of heart attack and stroke. (1-4)

The powerful free radical scavenging protection of Flavay® is especially beneficial to the cardiovascular system.

Flavay® is the authentic small-cluster proanthocyanidins complex derived from French pine bark and grape seeds—pure and unadulteratedused in the actual experiments by which Dr. Jack Masquelier patented the "Radical Scavenger Effect." of Flavay®

"[A] method for preventing and fighting the harmful biological effects of free radicals in the organism of warm blooded animals and more especially human beings, namely cerebral involution, hypoxia following atherosclerosis, cardiac or cerebral infarction, tumour promotion, inflammation, ischaemia, alterations of the synovial liquid, collagen degradation, among others. The method consists in administering to said animals and especially to human beings an amount, efficient against said effects, of a plant extract with a proanthocyanidins content which has a radical scavenger effect"—U.S. Patent No. 4,698,360 (1987). (1-3)

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Flavay® Strengthens Blood Vessels and Capillaries

Flavay® actually strengthens collagen in vascular walls and capillaries (the smallest vessels), making the vessels stronger and more elastic. Flavay® alters the membrane receptor conformation of vascular walls, reducing the damaging effects of the destructive enzymes elastase, collagenase and hyaluronidase, by preventing them from attaching to and degrading vascular walls. Flavay® further prevents destruction of vascular walls by preventing the attachment to membranes of histamine and hyaluronidase, both of which can decrease the strength of vessel walls. Thus, in addition to preventing the root causes of vessel occlusion, Flavay® strengthens vessels, thereby reducing the risk of a rupture or hemorrhage, and helping to prevent and relieve vascular fragility. (38-54)

Inflammation as a Major Risk in Cardiovascular Disease

The latest research shows that chronic inflammation from ordinary bacterial infections plays a major role in coronary heart disease and suggests that inflammation plays an even bigger role than cholesterol as a trigger for heart attacks. Recent studies suggest that biological markers of inflammation identify people at high risk of developing the coronary heart disease, and an association has been shown to exist between chronic infections, inflammatory markers and coronary heart disease. (160,161)

A recent study supported by The National Institutes of Health and the Mayo Foundation has shown that the early lesions and cholesterol deposits that mark atherosclerosis first develop as inflammation. As the inflamed blood vessels narrow, plaques build up inside, blocking blood flow and often leading to serious disease, such as stroke and heart attacks. A leading researcher in that study, Dr. Louis J. Ignarro (winner of the 1998 Nobel Prize in Medicine for his discovery concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system and UCLA professor of molecular and medical pharmacology) stated that treatment with antioxidants may prevent blood vessel inflammation and subsequent damage. (162)

We now know that ordinary bacterial infections such as sinus infections, urinary tract infections, bronchitis, periodontal (gum) disease, and stomach ulcers are linked to heart disease. Inflammation activates white blood cells, which use free radicals to destroy bacteria and other foreign objects in the blood. These white blood cells migrate to the arteries where some of the free radicals leak out, oxidizing LDL and damaging the linings of arteries. This process also elevates the C-reactive protein (CRP) in the blood; a chemical necessary for fighting injury and infection. Inflammation can be measured with a blood test that checks for CRP. (160,161)

A recent article published by the American Heart Association reported that chronic infections amplify the risk of atherosclerosis, even in persons that don't have the well-known risk factors such as high blood pressure, obesity, diabetes or lack of exercise. (163)

Flavay® is Particularly Effective

Flavay® inhibits the release and synthesis of histamine (which produces accelerated blood flow, dilates capillaries and increases their permeability, thereby leaking plasma into surrounding tissue), a key factor in the promotion of inflammation. Studies demonstrate that the anti-histamine action of Flavay® is obtained through inhibiting the activity of the enzyme histidine decarboxylase. Studies have demonstrated that Flavay® may lower the production of histamine with as much as 86 percent inhibition of histidine decarboxylase. This is of particular interest in protecting the cardiovascular system. (1,2,35,56,77)

It's not surprising that inflammation can significantly increase the risk of cardiovascular disease because inflammation is caused by the overproduction of free radicals in a specific area of the body. It is known that superoxide production is increased in atherosclerosis and this oxidative stress contributes to vascular damage. Superoxide is a free radical known to be involved in inflammation. Flavay® is a powerful antioxidant that readily quenches the superoxide free radicals and the other free radicals produced by inflammation. (1-5)

Free Radicals in Cardiovascular Disease

Free radicals are involved in the progression of cardiovascular disease in several different ways. Much of the damage that occurs in both heart attacks and strokes is caused by reperfusion injury: the burst of superoxide free radicals that flow in as the blood flow resumes. The good news is that the nutrients in Flavay® can protect tissues from this burst of superoxide free radicals. (3,8,10)

Flavay® has the greatest ability to control or destroy free radicals. As a free radical fighter, Flavay® comes to the aid of the body more quickly than other antioxidants, reducing the potential for free radical damage. Flavay® also possesses more reactive sites for neutralizing free radicals than other known antioxidants. Furthermore, Flavay® permits reactivity with both positively and negatively charged free radical species. What this means is that Flavay® can “quench” or “scavenge” (neutralize) a broad variety of free radicals, including the superoxide free radical. Highly reactive as an antioxidant in both lipid (fat) and aqueous (water) phases, Flavay® neutralizes oxygen free radicals and is a valuable protector of healthy cells in a variety of internal conditions. This is a unique property among antioxidants, as most work either in lipid or aqueous phases, but not both. (1-8)

Flavay® is superior to other antioxidants because its protective effects are multiplied in the body: while it provides its own, powerful antioxidant protection, it also supports the dynamic interplay between other antioxidants in the body. Flavay's ability to “recycle,” or regenerate vitamins C and E after they have quenched free radicals vastly extends their unique antioxidant powers, helping the body to maintain its synergistic antioxidant balance. (2,3,5,7,9,18,22,24,27-31)

Flavay® Normalizes Reactivity ("Stickiness") of Blood Platelets

Research shows that Flavay® improves nitric oxide levels produced by cells that line the arteries. Nitric oxide controls the muscles surrounding the blood vessels and causes them to relax. At the same time, nitric oxide causes blood platelets to return to their normal, smooth condition. (10,103,202)

Flavay® inhibits platelet aggregation by inhibiting the enzymes thromboxane A2, 5-lipoxygenase and other clotting compounds. The good news is that Flavay® protects the blood platelets without an increased risk of bleeding and other common side effects of aspirin. (10,103,202)

Aspirin is widely prescribed by doctors to prevent heart attacks because of its ability to inhibit platelet aggregation by inhibiting the enzyme cyclooxygenase. However, Flavay® works differently. Flavay® supports the body's own production of nitric oxide—helping the body to produce adequate levels and thereby causing the blood platelets to return to their normal, smooth condition. (10,103,202)

The Good-Bad Free Radical: Nitric Oxide

Contemporary scientific studies have established another way in which free radicals can promote atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), and how one free radical in particular, nitric oxide, plays a central role. Sometimes referred to as "NO", nitric oxide is a colorless gas is produced by different cells in the body that, depending on the situation, can be very good or very bad. (10,203,204)

The "good-bad" free radical became the subject of the prestigious Nobel Prize in Medicine when, among other functions, it was determined that it was a powerful vasodilator (the opening or widening of blood vessels which leads to increased blood flow). (10)

Nitric oxide plays several important roles in the body:

  • Nitric oxide is an important signaling molecule that turns genes on and off.
  • By controlling the muscular tone of blood vessels, nitric oxide regulates the circulation and normalizes blood flow.
  • Nitric oxide modulates communication between brain cells and is instrumental in helping us concentrate and learn new information, and also in maintaining memory.
  • When produced by immune cells, nitric oxide fights infection, kills tumor cells and promotes wound healing.
  • Nitric oxide is essential for perceiving pleasure and pain, and it helps translate sexual excitement into penile erections.
  • Nitric oxide aids in digestion of food by helping to control gastric movements. (203,204)

Flavay® helps the body maintain optimal levels of nitric oxide—by helping the body produce adequate levels and neutralizing this free radical where it does harm. (10,103,202)

But nitric oxide can be very destructive under other circumstances:

  • Nitric oxide restricts blood flow.
  • When produced in excess by immune cells, nitric oxide can trigger chronic inflammation, which can cause arthritis, colitis, inflammatory bowel disease and possibly cancer.
  • Nitric oxide promotes production of more free radicals.
  • In the brain, nitric oxide can hamper mental function and cause memory loss and brain aging. (203,204)

Flavay®, Endothelial Functon, and the Nitric Oxide Connection

Flavay® helps endothelial function by improving nitric oxide levels which causes blood platelets to return to their normal, smooth condition. (10,103,202)

Nitric oxide is produced in the endothelial cells (cells that line the interior of blood vessels) from arginine, and the nutrients in Flavay® act on the endothelial cells to produce nitric oxide, which, in turn, relaxes the blood vessels. This action counteracts the vasoconstricting effects (the closing or narrowing of blood vessels that leads to decreased blood flow) of the stress hormone adrenaline and also diminishes the threat of platelets clumping.

Thus, nitric oxide is essential for normal blood circulation as it controls the muscular tone of blood vessels and regulates circulation and blood flow. However, excessive amounts of nitric oxide can be deadly to the cardiovascular system and actually contribute to heart disease and strokes, and many other apparently different disorders (such as arthritis, asthma and Parkinson's disease). High levels of nitric oxide can restrict blood flow and promote production of more free radicals, including the dangerous peroxynitrate. Altogether this shows that in order to have good circulatory health, the body must activate the optimum levels of nitric oxide—and research shows that Flavay® can help regulate that balance by preventing the overproduction of nitric oxide in the body.

The real trouble starts when nitric oxide encounters the superoxide free radical and becomes peroxynitrate, which destroys antioxidants like glutathione, vitamin E and common flavonoids, and damages proteins in the body. The good news is that Flavay® scavenges peroxynitrate and has a remarkable modulatory effect on nitric oxide—helping to maintain optimal levels in the body and neutralizing this free radical where it does harm. (10,103,202)

Flavay®: Your Weapon Against Toxic Free Radicals

Research also demonstrates that Flavay® can quench the hydroxyl radical. This is extremely important. Of all the free radicals formed in the body, the hydroxyl radical is the most dangerous because it can directly attack DNA. As a free radical scavenger, Flavay® is like an antioxidant prize fighter that can successfully take on all challengers, big or small, in any kind of weather. (1-5)

Antioxidants: The Sum is Greater Than the Parts

Until recently, scientists believed that each antioxidant worked separately in the body, independently of the others. We now know that isn't true. Current research demonstrates that antioxidants work as a team, in sequence and in a complementary fashion, even "recycling" each other for a more powerful, synergistic effect. Harvard researchers found in a study of 87,000 female nurses that a combination of antioxidant vitamins (beta-carotene and vitamins C and E) provided far greater protection from cardiovascular disease than the single antioxidants. Flavay® is a powerful antioxidant that recycles and potentiates vitamin C, a key player in the antioxidant army, and Flavay Plus® thereby optimizes the synergy created by these antioxidant soldiers. (7,11,164)

Synergistic Help for Cardiovascular & Circulatory Health

Vitamin A as beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin, lutein, and lycopene:

Flavay Plus® is formulated with the safest and preferred form of vitamin A, beta-carotene (Betatene®) which is converted into vitamin A only as the body needs it. What isn’t converted to vitamin A remains as a powerful antioxidant, shown to shown to benefit the cardiovascular system, and to reduce the risk of atherosclerosis, heart attack and stroke. Flavay Plus® provides the highest quality, full-spectrum, patented Betatene®, a complete array of plant-derived, antioxidant carotenoids: beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin, lutein, and lycopene. (11,12)

Vitamin B-1 (Thiamin):

Plays an essential role in the metabolism of carbohydrates in the body, improves mental attitude, and keeps the nervous system, muscles and heart functioning normally. Inadequate intake may result in mental illness and some psychiatrists use vitamin B-1 for various emotional and psychiatric illnesses, oftentimes with medication. A deficiency of thiamin (vitamin B-1), for example, may produce irritability, nervousness and even increased sensitivity to noise. (157)

VITAMIN B-2 (Riboflavin):

Assists in energy metabolism, fatty and amino acid synthesis. Vitamin B-2 is needed for tissue repair and is sometimes called the “growth vitamin.” Inadequate intake may cause depression, moodiness, nervousness, and irritability. (11,12)

Vitamin B-6 (Pyridoxine):

Involved in the metabolism of amino acids (the building blocks of proteins) and of essential fatty acids, the nervous system is dependent on vitamin B-6 for the production of GABA and neurotransmitters in the brain, such as serotonin and dopamine. It may be difficult for men and women to obtain even the RDAs from food; and stress, medications, smoking, and pollutants raise the B-6 requirement. Inadequate intake is associated with depression, confusion, dizziness, insomnia, irritability, and nervousness. (142,151-156,158)

Vitamin B-12 (Cyanocobalamin):

Helps the body to utilize fats, carbohydrates and protein; and to maintain a healthy nervous system. Vitamin B-12 increases energy, relieves irritability, and improves concentration, memory and balance. Vitamin B-12 also helps the body to form and regenerate red blood cells and to break down homocysteine, a risk factor in heart disease. In children, B-12 supports growth. (11,12)

Vitamin B-12 deficiency can mimic Alzheimer’s disease: vitamin B-12 deficiency may cause fatigue, headaches, heart and nervous system disturbances such as numbness and tingling of the arms or legs, depression, mental confusion, and memory deficits. (11,12)


One of the most abundant neurotransmitters in the brain, some people with anxiety, panic disorders, and depression may not manufacture sufficient levels of GABA. For people who are over-stimulated, GABA induces a balancing relaxation. (148-156)

Flavay® recycles and significantly extends the lifetime of vitamin C, potentiates vitamin E, and thereby creates a more powerful, synergistic antioxidant effect in the body. (9,18,22,24,27-31)

Vitamin C:

Water-soluble, a potent free radical scavenger and it recycles vitamin E in the body. Vitamin C plays a primary role in the formation of collagen and it is essential for a healthy cardiovascular system and a strong immune system. Controlled studies prove the contribution of vitamin C in the manufacture of white blood cells and interferon. (7,9-12)

Flavay's® ability to “recycle,” or regenerate vitamins C after it has quenched free radicals vastly extends its unique antioxidant powers, helping the body to maintain its synergistic antioxidant balance. (2,3,5,7,9,18,22,24,27-31)

Vitamin E (naturally-derived and cold-water dispersible D-alpha tocopherol succinate):

The body’s principal fat-soluble antioxidant. Much of the body’s free radical damage occurs in fats and in fatty membranes of cells—exactly where vitamin E protects the body. Vitamin E is used by surgeons before and after operations to ensure against thrombosis and increase immunity to infection, by pediatricians to prevent blindness in premature babies, and by other specialists to increase high-density lipoproteins. Vitamin E decreases elevated hormone levels and prevents and treats anemias. (7,9-12)

Flavay Plus® uses only natural, cold-water dispersible (dry powder) vitamin E because it is efficiently absorbed even when taken on an empty stomach or with a low-fat meal.

Cold-water dispersible vitamin E is twice as expensive as soybean oil E-acetate, but the cold-water dispersible forms are more efficiently absorbed.

Flavay Plus® uses only natural, cold-water dispersible (dry powder) vitamin E because it is efficiently absorbed even when taken on an empty stomach or with a low-fat meal. The other forms of natural vitmain E, the non-cold water dispersible (oil) forms, may be poorly absorbed unless taken with several grams of fats or oils.

The National Academy of Science officially recognized natural vitamin E (d-alpha) as twice as potent and retained twice as well as synthetic (dl-alpha). This means twice as much natural vitamin E reaches the blood and organs compared to synthetic versions.


Necessary for the body’s production of its own, naturally occurring antioxidants including: glutathione (a key intracellular antioxidant enzyme system that is responsible for protecting all of the body’s cells from free radical damage and detoxifying noxious agents from the body) and thioredoxin reductase, which recycles vitamin C. Selenium also has a synergistic effect with vitamin E, which means that the two combined are more powerful than either alone. Many Americans do not consume even the small RDA of selenium in their diet. Not consuming enough selenium is dangerous to your health. Low blood levels of selenium have been strongly associated with an increased risk of heart attack, stroke, and many different types of cancer. (7,9,11,12)

Flavay Plus® includes zinc as it is a necessary part of the body’s production of DHA and a constituent of many vital enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD). (7,9,11,12)


An essential mineral, zinc has many important effects on the brain and immune system, including neurotransmitter production and enzyme functioning. Zinc is a necessary part of the body’s production of DHA and a constituent of many vital enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), which is a critical cellular antioxidant enzyme that is responsible for mopping up peroxynitrate, the highly toxic free radical produced in abundance in the normal course of immune system battles (as in viral or bacterial infections) and plays a powerful role in immune system inflammation. Together with the B vitamins, zinc assists in the utilization of insulin and glucose. There is a growing body of evidence to indicate that zinc is needed for the proper maintenance of vitamin E levels in the blood and aids in the absorption of vitamin A. Other important functions of zinc include the promotion of glandular and reproductive health; and there is strong evidence that zinc is required for the synthesis of the nucleic acids RNA and DNA, which are essential for cell repair and cell growth. Studies have found large percentages of apparently healthy children to be deficient in zinc. There is evidence that zinc levels fall after physical and mental stress. Flavay Plus® uses zinc orotate, a high-quality, highly bioavailable form of zinc. (7,9,11,12)

Flavay Plus® includes phosphatidyl serine for its proven ability to optimize cognition, learning ability and coping with stress. (110,114)

Phosphatidyl serine:

Flavay Plus® is formulated with phosphatidyl serine, a complex of amino and fatty acids extracted from soy lecithin, which has proven to be a safe, potentially effective therapeutic agent in treating memory deficit disorders and is an often-used supplement for attention deficit disorders. Phosphatidyl serine has been the subject of many human clinical trials regarding memory loss, mood, cognitive performance, learning ability and stress. Many studies show that phosphatidyl serine can optimize cognition. In the most famous human study, researchers gave 300 mg of phosphatidyl serine a day for 12 weeks to 149 subjects over 50. Various memory and learning tests were administered before and after. The results showed that phosphatidyl serine managed to raise cognitive performance to the levels typical for as much as 12 years younger. (110,114)

Phosphatidyl serine is a phospholipid that is vital to brain cell structure and function. Phospholipids are molecules containing both amino and fatty acid components, which are found in every cell membrane in our bodies. Phosphatidyl serine plays an important role in our neurotransmitter systems, in metabolism levels of the brain, and in maintaining nerve connections in the brain. It appears to help reestablish the normal down-regulation of cortisol secretion that is increased in chronically stressed individuals, and its benefit in dementia and depression may relate to improved brain cell membrane fluidity. In the clinical studies, phosphatidyl serine (100 mg three times daily) has been shown to improve the mood and mental function in those with Parkinson’s disease. (110,113,114,119)

Scientific studies have demonstrated that phosphatidyl serine supplementation can increase the output of acetylcholine, the neurotransmitter so important to memory. Clinical trials with elderly patients suffering from memory deficit disorders have shown that adding phosphatidyl serine to the daily diet improved the ability of these patients to think and decreased behavioral disturbances. In other studies, phosphatidyl serine also improved the performance of patients with age-associated memory impairment, a disorder affecting millions of Americans each year. (106-145)

Flavay Plus® Helps With Stress

Research shows that Flavay Plus® can lower stress-induced hormone (cortisol) production by 30 percent. (117)

Research has shown that phosphatidyl serine works to keep the brain’s processes within normal limits, raising them when they are low and lowering them when they are high. So phosphatidyl serine boosts the weak stress response in the elderly person and calms down exaggerated stress in the healthy young person. Both physical and mental stressful conditions cause stress hormones to be released into circulation, even in the young and healthy. Phosphatidyl serine given to athletes prior to starting exercise produced an impressive degree of down-regulation of the stress hormones. Phosphatidyl serine may have the capacity to “normalize” the stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study conducted in Italy, phosphatidyl serine lowered stress hormone (cortisol) production by 30 percent. (117)

What makes Flavay® superior to other extracts?

More than 60 years of solid scientific research, patents and clinical studies, rigorous manufacturing controls and comprehensive identity testing to safeguard quality and consistency, Flavay® is produced at the same French manufacturing facilities for pharmaceutical over-the-counter and dietary supplement uses worldwide. Flavay® is the name you can trust for pure and unadulterated authentic small-cluster OPCs manufactured in France for over 60 years.

Proanthocyanidin clusters must have a certain molecular size to be effective.

Oligomeric (small-cluster) proanthocyanidins (OPCs) are organic clusters of dimers (2), trimers (3), tetramers (4) and pentamers (5)—and no larger. (Larger clusters are non-nutritive: cannot pass the intestinal tract into the blood and too large to fit between collagen fibrils, and therefore unable to repair decayed collagen.) Dr. Masquelier received several patents for the commercial extraction and isolation of OPCs from pine bark and grape seeds. It is these highly defined complexes in Flavay® that have been subject to intensive biological, toxicological, pharmacological and analytical research; and approved in Europe as over-the-counter medicines. (2-4)

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Synergistic Benefits in a Capsule

Flavay Plus® utilizes the dynamic interplay between these antioxidant nutrients and their co-factors in order to provide you and your family with the best that nutritional science has to offer in a convenient, cost effective capsule.

Look, Feel and Think Younger with both
Flavay® and Flavay Plus®

Get the results you want now: Flavay® rebuilds collagen, improves circulation and health in skin cells, and reduces inflammation; boosts the immune system with powerful antioxidant action; and Flavay Plus® can help improve concentration, attention and memory—raising cognitive performance to the levels typical for as much as 12 years younger! (1,18,19,25,33,56,123)

Flavay® customers
say it best:

“Flavay® is terrific. I've had concentration problems, well, for 60 years, all my life. I couldn't have direct eye contact with people when talking with them because I couldn't concentrate. I told jokes but couldn't make people laugh because I couldn't keep my concentration. Now I can look people in the eye. Now I can make people laugh! I don't know how it works but it works and it is terrific.”
Mr. Wayne S.

“I just wanted to write and say WOW... I was so skeptical of your product at first and really had a negative attitude when I started taking it. I am a 40yr old female with anxiety, mild ADHD and a host of Arthrtis and inflammation issues. It was a struggle for me to get out of bed everyday and focus on what needed to be done. I had no focus, no attention span, no energy, and no desire to do anything. About a week into taking Flavay, I started noticing that I could think a little clearer. My rheumatoid arthritis flare-ups weren't so bad, though I still have them. Also, I haven't been procrastinating as much and also, my boss has noticed I've been a little more social. I attribute all of this to feeling better, and having more energy. I never thought I would feel like my old self again. I don't know exactly how you do it,...but this stuff works! I am telling all of my friends to try it because you've given me my old life back! Thank you!”
Ms. L. A.

“I want to thank your company for Flavay Plus®. My aunt and grandmother had Alzheimer's. In my early 50's I was beginning to experience some memory problems, but not anymore, and I'm grateful.”
Ms. Lynne M.

NOTE: We do not compensate for our endorsements and testimonials. We do not consider paid testimonials to be nearly as valuable as comments from customers who were not compensated and yet liked the products so much they gave their testimonials anyway.
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Flavay and Flavay Plus

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  • 1. Masquelier, J. Plant extract with a proanthocyanidins content as a therapeutic agent having radical scavenging effect and use thereof. U.S. Patent No. 4,698,360, 1987.
  • 2. Masquelier, J. A lifetime devoted to OPC and [pyc]. Alfa Omega Editrice, Pub., 1996.
  • 3. Schwitters, B., Masquelier, J. OPC in practice. Alfa Omega Editrice, Publishers, 1995.
  • 4. Schwitters, B., Dr. Masquelier's mark on health. Alfa Omega Editrice, Publishers, 2004.
  • 5. Kilham, C., Masquelier, J. OPC: The miracle antioxidant. Keats Publishing, Inc., 1997.
  • 6. Masquelier J., [pyc]s: recent advances in the therapeutical activity of procyanidins. Natural Products as Medicinal Agents, Vol. 1, Hippokrates Verlag, Stuttgart, pp. 243-256, 1981.
  • 7. Passwater, R.A. The antioxidants: the nutrients that guard your body. Keats Publishing, Inc., 1985.
  • 8. Passwater, R.A., et al. super 'protector' nutrient. Keats Publishing, Inc., 1994. Keats Publishing, Inc., 1985.
  • 9. Barilla, J. et al. The nutrition superbook: volume 1: the antioxidants. Keats Publishing, Inc., 1995.
  • 10. Packer, L., et al. The antioxidant miracle: your complete plan. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1999.
  • 11. Lieberman, S., et al. The real vitamin & mineral book: going beyond the RDA. Avery Pub., 1990.
  • 103. Rohdewald, P. [pyc]. Vol 7 of Flavonoids in Health and Disease, edited by C. Rice-Evans and L. Packer. New York: Marcel Dekker Inc., 1998.
  • 160. Koenig, W., et al. C-Reactive Protein, a Sensitive Marker of Inflammation, Predicts Future Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Initially Healthy Middle-Aged Men. Circulation. 1999;99:237-242.
  • 161. Bisoendial, R.J., et al. C-reactive protein is a mediator of cardiovascular disease. Eur Heart J (2010) 31 (17): 2087-2091.
  • 162. Ignarro, L.J., Ignarro, S.W., Palinski, W. of UCLA; Nigris, D.F., Sica, G. Napoli, C of the University of Naples; Lerman, L., Lerman, A of the Mayo Clinic. Vitamins may protect against heart disease. The National Institutes of Health and the Mayo Foundation supported the research, UCLA public release, 15-Jan-2003.
  • 163. Kiechl S., et al. Chronic infections and the risk of carotid atherosclerosis: prospective results from a large population study. Circulation. 2001 Feb 27;103(8):1064-70.
  • 164. Meir J., et al. Vitamin E Consumption and the Risk of Coronary Disease in Women. N Engl J Med 1993; 328:1444-1449.
  • 202. Packer, L., et al. "Antioxidant Food Supplements in Human Health," Academic Press, CA, 1999.
  • 203. Lincoln, J., et al. "Nitric Oxide in Health and Disease," Cambridge University Press, UK, 1997.
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