Flavay Plus® is formulated to boost your brain and immune functions— proven to boost the weak stress response in an elderly person and calm down exaggerated stress in a healthy young person. (110,113,114,119)

What is Flavay® Plus?

A synergistic blend based on the best nutritional science has to offer in a safe, convenient and
cost-effective capsule.

Flavay Plus® utilizes the proven dynamic interplay among the antioxidants and their co-factor nutrients. This is important because research shows that antioxidants work together—not alone. (9)

Until recently many believed that each antioxidant worked separately in the body, independently of the others. We now know that isn't true. Current research demonstrates that antioxidants work as a team, in sequence and in a complementary fashion. For example: Flavay® recycles and significantly extends the lifetime of vitamin C, potentiates vitamin E, and thereby creates a more powerful, synergistic antioxidant effect in the body. (9,18,22,24,27-31)

Flavay Plus® takes advantage of this network action with the following synergistic blend of antioxidants and phytonutrients, in a convenient, cost-effective capsule.

Flavay® is the authentic small-cluster proanthocyanidins complex derived from French pine bark and grape seeds—pure and unadulteratedused in the actual experiments by which Dr. Jack Masquelier patented the "Radical Scavenger Effect." of Flavay® (1-3)

Buy Flavay Now

What makes Flavay® superior?

More than 60 years of solid scientific research, patents and clinical studies, rigorous manufacturing controls and comprehensive identity testing to safeguard quality and consistency; produced at the same French manufacturing facilities for pharmaceutical over-the-counter and dietary supplement uses worldwide. Flavay® is the name you can trust for pure, unadulterated and authentic small-cluster OPCs manufactured in France for over 60 years.

Flavay® has several key actions when consumed:

  • Flavay® is a powerfully effective ANTIOXIDANT that recycles other antioxidants in the body after they have quenched corrosive free radicals which affect many tissues and conditions including cognitive impairment and premature aging. (1-7,18,20,22-31,84,85,87,89)
  • Flavay® helps to regulate the good-bad free radical, NITRIC OXIDE, which is essential for: normal blood circulation, coordinating activity between the immune system and the brain, and modulating communication between brain cells—and is thereby deeply involved in concentration, learning and memory. (5,7,10,14)
  • Flavay® inhibits the release and synthesis of HISTAMINE, a key factor in the promotion of INFLAMMATION; reactions associated with conditions like vascular diseases, allergies, and arthritis. (1-10,77,79,87)
  • Flavay® strengthens and rebuilds COLLAGEN proteins, improving skin and blood vessel health. (1-10,18,19,25,36,37,60)

Flavay Plus® uses a synergistic blend of Flavay® with antioxidant vitamins and minerals and other phytonutrients to best take advantage of the dynamic interplay among the antioxidants.

This is important because we now know that antioxidants work together in the body—not alone. (9)

Flavay Plus® Adds Synergistic Help for Brain Function, Attention & Acuity

Flavay Plus® uses a synergistic blend of Flavay® with antioxidant vitamins, minerals and other phytonutrients to best take advantage of the dynamic interplay among the key antioxidants and their co-factor nutrients.

Phosphatidyl serine:

Flavay Plus® adds phosphatidyl serine, a complex of amino and fatty acids extracted from soy (confirmed non-GMO) proven to be a safe and potentially effective therapeutic agent in treating memory deficit disorders, and is often used for attention deficit disorders. Phosphatidyl serine in Flavay Plus® was the subject of many human clinical trials regarding memory loss, mood, cognitive performance and learning ability. In the most famous human study, researchers gave 300 mg per day for 12 weeks to 149 subjects over 50-years-old. Various memory and learning tests were compared to the subjects before and after. and the results showed a significant rise in cognitive performance—to levels typical for as much as 12 years younger.(110,114)

PET image of a 59-year-old female's brain. The color scale indicates regional glucose metabolism at three brain levels, red is most intense and blue is least. Upper: before Flavay Plus; Lower: after Flavay Plus daily for three weeks.

Flavay Plus® increases metabolism throughout your entire brain.

ABOVE: PET imaging of the brain of a 59-year-old woman. The color scale indicates regional glucose metabolism at three brain levels, red is most intense and blue is least. UPPER: before PS; LOWER: after taking 500 MG PS daily for three weeks. Metabolism is increased in almost all brain regions. (109)

In a study where a group of 27 ADHD children took 200 to 300 mg of phosphatidyl serine daily for four months, researchers found that 25 children exhibited improvement in learning capacity and behavior; and the researchers noted that there were no adverse affects. This substance also has the potential to stimulate the brain to produce dopamine. Published, double-blind research shows that phosphatidyl serine can also be helpful for depression. (110,113)

Phosphatidyl serine is a phospholipid that is vital to brain cell structure and function. Phospholipids are molecules containing both amino and fatty acid components, which are found in every cell membrane in our bodies. Phosphatidyl serine plays an important role in our neurotransmitter systems, in metabolism levels of the brain, and in maintaining nerve connections in the brain. It appears to help reestablish the normal down-regulation of cortisol secretion that is increased in chronically stressed individuals, and its benefit in dementia and depression may relate to improved brain cell membrane fluidity. In the clinical studies, phosphatidyl serine (100 mg three times daily) has been shown to improve the mood and mental function in those with Parkinson’s disease. (110,113,114,119)

Flavay Plus® includes phosphatidyl serine for its proven ability to improve cognition, learning ability and coping with stress. (110,114)

Scientific studies have demonstrated that phosphatidyl serine supplementation can increase the output of acetylcholine, the neurotransmitter so important to memory. Clinical trials with elderly patients suffering from memory deficit disorders have shown that adding phosphatidyl serine to the daily diet improved the ability of these patients to think and decreased behavioral disturbances. In other studies, phosphatidyl serine also improved the performance of patients with age-associated memory impairment, a disorder affecting millions of Americans each year. (106-145)

Flavay Plus® Helps With Stress

Research shows that Flavay Plus® can lower stress-induced hormone (cortisol) production by 30 percent. (117)

The Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders reported that children with ADHD experienced abnormal rhythms in the stress hormone cortisol. (14,195)

Research has shown that phosphatidyl serine works to keep the brain’s processes within normal limits, raising them when they are low and lowering them when they are high. So phosphatidyl serine boosts the weak stress response in the elderly person and calms down exaggerated stress in the healthy young person. Both physical and mental stressful conditions cause stress hormones to be released into circulation, even in the young and healthy. Phosphatidyl serine given to athletes prior to starting exercise produced an impressive degree of down-regulation of the stress hormones. Phosphatidyl serine may have the capacity to “normalize” the stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study conducted in Italy, phosphatidyl serine lowered stress hormone (cortisol) production by 30 percent. (117)

Flavay Plus® boosts the weak stress response in the elderly person and calms down exaggerated stress in the healthy young person. (110,113,114,119)

Two more recent placebo controlled studies confirmed the earlier double-blind trials; young, university students experienced significantly less stress from tests when they took phosphatidyl serine (300 mg daily for 30 days), they stayed more clear-headed and composed, and kept a more stable mood. (190,191)

Altogether, this research shows that Flavay Plus® can help young and old people confront the stressful challenges of living in today's world.

Ginkgo Biloba:

Flavay Plus® also includes standardized ginkgo biloba leaf extract, primarily known as a brain booster. In Germany and France, ginkgo biloba extract is commonly prescribed for mental problems that are often caused by poor circulation to the brain, such as difficulty concentrating, poor memory, confusion, depression, and anxiety. There have been numerous European studies conducted on ginkgo biloba extract and many have reported positive effects in terms of memory and acuity. Recently, the New York Institute for Medical Research conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled study using ginkgo biloba extract on patients suffering from dementia (caused by either stroke or Alzheimer’s disease), with positive results. This is significant because there are few drugs that have any impact at all on cases of dementia. And, the study was published in a mainstream medical journal. Flavay Plus® uses the clinically proven optimum ratios of standardized ginkgo leaf extract that were used in the breakthrough study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association. (147)

Vitamin A as beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin, lutein, and lycopene:

Flavay Plus® is formulated with the safest and preferred form of vitamin A, beta-carotene (Betatene®) which is converted into vitamin A only as the body needs it. What isn’t converted to vitamin A remains as a powerful antioxidant, shown to be a cancer preventative, to help strengthen the immune system, to reduce the risk of atherosclerosis, heart attack and stroke, and protect against macular degeneration and the formation of cataracts. Flavay Plus® provides the highest quality, full-spectrum, patented Betatene®, a complete array of plant-derived, antioxidant carotenoids: beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin, lutein, and lycopene. (11,12)

Flavay Plus® is a synergistic blend of phosphatidyl serine with Flavay® and other antioxidants and B vitamins because researchers show that phosphatidyl serine "works with other nutrients such as the B vitamins and antioxidants to ensure smooth and efficient functioning of all the organs." (192)

Vitamin B-1 (Thiamin):

Plays an essential role in the metabolism of carbohydrates in the body, improves mental attitude, and keeps the nervous system, muscles and heart functioning normally. Inadequate intake may result in mental illness and some psychiatrists use vitamin B-1 for various emotional and psychiatric illnesses, oftentimes with medication. A deficiency of thiamin (vitamin B-1), for example, may produce irritability, nervousness and even increased sensitivity to noise. (157)

VITAMIN B-2 (Riboflavin):

Assists in energy metabolism, fatty and amino acid synthesis. Vitamin B-2 is needed for tissue repair and is sometimes called the “growth vitamin.” Inadequate intake may cause depression, moodiness, nervousness, and irritability. (11,12)

Vitamin B-6 (Pyridoxine):

Involved in the metabolism of amino acids (the building blocks of proteins) and of essential fatty acids, the nervous system is dependent on vitamin B-6 for the production of GABA and neurotransmitters in the brain, such as serotonin and dopamine. It may be difficult for men and women to obtain even the RDAs from food; and stress, medications, smoking, and pollutants raise the B-6 requirement. Inadequate intake is associated with depression, confusion, dizziness, insomnia, irritability, and nervousness. (142,151-156,158)

Some neurological childhood conditions appear to be connected to the B-vitamins. A study conducted at Saint Joseph Hospital in Pennsylvania found low serotonin (a neurotransmitter involved with mood) levels in hyperactive children. The researchers gave some of the subjects vitamin B-6 and observed their serotonin levels rise appreciably. Also, research suggests that a deficiency of vitamins B-2 and B-6 play a primary role in the cause of emotional disorders. (151,152)

Vitamin B-12 (Cyanocobalamin):

Helps the body to utilize fats, carbohydrates and protein; and to maintain a healthy nervous system. Vitamin B-12 increases energy, relieves irritability, and improves concentration, memory and balance. Vitamin B-12 also helps the body to form and regenerate red blood cells and to break down homocysteine, a risk factor in heart disease. In children, B-12 supports growth. (11,12)

Vitamin B-12 deficiency can mimic Alzheimer’s disease: vitamin B-12 deficiency may cause fatigue, headaches, heart and nervous system disturbances such as numbness and tingling of the arms or legs, depression, mental confusion, and memory deficits. (11,12)


One of the most abundant neurotransmitters in the brain, some people with anxiety, panic disorders, and depression may not manufacture sufficient levels of GABA. For people who are over-stimulated, GABA induces a balancing relaxation. (148-156)

Flavay® recycles and significantly extends the lifetime of vitamin C, potentiates vitamin E, and thereby creates a more powerful, synergistic antioxidant effect in the body. (9,18,22,24,27-31)

Vitamin C:

Water-soluble, a potent free radical scavenger and it recycles vitamin E in the body. Vitamin C plays a primary role in the formation of collagen and it is essential for a healthy cardiovascular system and a strong immune system. Controlled studies prove the contribution of vitamin C in the manufacture of white blood cells and interferon. (7,9-12)

Flavay's® ability to “recycle,” or regenerate vitamins C after it has quenched free radicals vastly extends its unique antioxidant powers, helping the body to maintain its synergistic antioxidant balance. (2,3,5,7,9,18,22,24,27-31)

Vitamin E (naturally-derived and cold-water dispersible D-alpha tocopherol succinate):

The body’s principal fat-soluble antioxidant. Much of the body’s free radical damage occurs in fats and in fatty membranes of cells—exactly where vitamin E protects the body. Vitamin E is used by surgeons before and after operations to ensure against thrombosis and increase immunity to infection, by pediatricians to prevent blindness in premature babies, and by other specialists to increase high-density lipoproteins. Vitamin E decreases elevated hormone levels and prevents and treats anemias. (7,9-12)

Flavay Plus® uses only natural, cold-water dispersible (dry powder) vitamin E because it is efficiently absorbed even when taken on an empty stomach or with a low-fat meal.

Cold-water dispersible vitamin E is twice as expensive as soybean oil E-acetate, but the cold-water dispersible forms are more efficiently absorbed.

Flavay Plus® uses only natural, cold-water dispersible (dry powder) vitamin E because it is efficiently absorbed even when taken on an empty stomach or with a low-fat meal. The other forms of natural vitmain E, the non-cold water dispersible (oil) forms, may be poorly absorbed unless taken with several grams of fats or oils.

The National Academy of Science officially recognized natural vitamin E (d-alpha) as twice as potent and retained twice as well as synthetic (dl-alpha). This means twice as much natural vitamin E reaches the blood and organs compared to synthetic versions.


Necessary for the body’s production of its own, naturally occurring antioxidants including: glutathione (a key intracellular antioxidant enzyme system that is responsible for protecting all of the body’s cells from free radical damage and detoxifying noxious agents from the body) and thioredoxin reductase, which recycles vitamin C. Selenium also has a synergistic effect with vitamin E, which means that the two combined are more powerful than either alone. Many Americans do not consume even the small RDA of selenium in their diet. Not consuming enough selenium is dangerous to your health. Low blood levels of selenium have been strongly associated with an increased risk of heart attack, stroke, and many different types of cancer. (7,9,11,12)

Flavay Plus® includes zinc as it is a necessary part of the body’s production of DHA and a constituent of many vital enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD). (7,9,11,12)


An essential mineral, zinc has many important effects on the brain and immune system, including neurotransmitter production and enzyme functioning. Zinc is a necessary part of the body’s production of DHA and a constituent of many vital enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), which is a critical cellular antioxidant enzyme that is responsible for mopping up peroxynitrate, the highly toxic free radical produced in abundance in the normal course of immune system battles (as in viral or bacterial infections) and plays a powerful role in immune system inflammation. Together with the B vitamins, zinc assists in the utilization of insulin and glucose. There is a growing body of evidence to indicate that zinc is needed for the proper maintenance of vitamin E levels in the blood and aids in the absorption of vitamin A. Other important functions of zinc include the promotion of glandular and reproductive health; and there is strong evidence that zinc is required for the synthesis of the nucleic acids RNA and DNA, which are essential for cell repair and cell growth. Studies have found large percentages of apparently healthy children to be deficient in zinc. There is evidence that zinc levels fall after physical and mental stress. Flavay Plus® uses zinc orotate, a high-quality, highly bioavailable form of zinc. (7,9,11,12)

Flavay Plus® also includes zinc because a number of studies are pointing to an association between zinc deficiency and ADHD. One such 1996 study, published in the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, revealed a statistically significant correlation between zinc and fatty acids, in that both were decreased in children with ADHD. In another study, conducted at Ohio State University, investigators found a relationship between zinc deficiency and response to stimulant therapy among people with ADHD. Basically, this study showed that children diagnosed with ADHD may be zinc deficient, and that this deficiency may result in their poor response to stimulant therapy. (14,159)

Flavay and Flavay Plus

Buy Now

Call for excellent service:


We gladly accept the following
major credit cards:
Visa MasterCard Discover American Express

Synergistic Benefits in a Capsule

Flavay Plus® utilizes the dynamic interplay between these antioxidant nutrients and their co-factors in order to provide you and your family with the best that nutritional science has to offer in a convenient, cost effective capsule.

Look, Feel and Think Younger with both
Flavay® and Flavay Plus®

Get the results you want now: Flavay® rebuilds collagen, improves circulation and health in skin cells, and reduces inflammation; boosts the immune system with powerful antioxidant action; and Flavay Plus® can help improve concentration, attention and memory—raising cognitive performance to the levels typical for as much as 12 years younger! (1,18,19,25,33,56,123)

Flavay® customers
say it best:

“Flavay® is terrific. I've had concentration problems, well, for 60 years, all my life. I couldn't have direct eye contact with people when talking with them because I couldn't concentrate. I told jokes but couldn't make people laugh because I couldn't keep my concentration. Now I can look people in the eye. Now I can make people laugh! I don't know how it works but it works and it is terrific.”
Mr. Wayne S.

“I just wanted to write and say WOW... I was so skeptical of your product at first and really had a negative attitude when I started taking it. I am a 40yr old female with anxiety, mild ADHD and a host of Arthrtis and inflammation issues. It was a struggle for me to get out of bed everyday and focus on what needed to be done. I had no focus, no attention span, no energy, and no desire to do anything. About a week into taking Flavay, I started noticing that I could think a little clearer. My rheumatoid arthritis flare-ups weren't so bad, though I still have them. Also, I haven't been procrastinating as much and also, my boss has noticed I've been a little more social. I attribute all of this to feeling better, and having more energy. I never thought I would feel like my old self again. I don't know exactly how you do it,...but this stuff works! I am telling all of my friends to try it because you've given me my old life back! Thank you!”
Ms. L. A.

“I want to thank your company for Flavay Plus®. My aunt and grandmother had Alzheimer's. In my early 50's I was beginning to experience some memory problems, but not anymore, and I'm grateful.”
Ms. Lynne M.

NOTE: We do not compensate for our endorsements and testimonials. We do not consider paid testimonials to be nearly as valuable as comments from customers who were not compensated and yet liked the products so much they gave their testimonials anyway.
Flavay Brochure

To receive more information, use the form below.

We'll personally answer your questions below, or pick up the phone and call us at 1-800-200-1203.

If you would like to receive a color brochure, include your mailing address.

  • * Required
  • *
  • *
  • *

Flavay and Flavay Plus

Buy Now

Call for excellent service:


We gladly accept the following
major credit cards:
Visa MasterCard Discover American Express

  • 1. Masquelier, J. Plant extract with a proanthocyanidins content as a therapeutic agent having radical scavenging effect and use thereof. U.S. Patent No. 4,698,360, 1987.
  • 2. Masquelier, J. A lifetime devoted to OPC and [pyc]. Alfa Omega Editrice, Pub., 1996.
  • 3. Schwitters, B., Masquelier, J. OPC in practice. Alfa Omega Editrice, Publishers, 1995.
  • 4. Schwitters, B., Dr. Masquelier's mark on health. Alfa Omega Editrice, Publishers, 2004.
  • 5. Kilham, C., Masquelier, J. OPC: The miracle antioxidant. Keats Publishing, Inc., 1997.
  • 6. Masquelier J., [pyc]s: recent advances in the therapeutical activity of procyanidins. Natural Products as Medicinal Agents, Vol. 1, Hippokrates Verlag, Stuttgart, pp. 243-256, 1981.
  • 7. Passwater, R.A. The antioxidants: the nutrients that guard your body. Keats Publishing, Inc., 1985.
  • 8. Passwater, R.A., et al. super 'protector' nutrient. Keats Publishing, Inc., 1994. Keats Publishing, Inc., 1985.
  • 9. Barilla, J. et al. The nutrition superbook: volume 1: the antioxidants. Keats Publishing, Inc., 1995.
  • 10. Packer, L., et al. The antioxidant miracle: your complete plan. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1999.
  • 14. Lombard, J., (board certified neurologist), Germano, C. The Brain Wellness Plan - Breakthrough Medical, Nutritional and Immune-Boosting Therapies to Prevent and Treat Depression, Alzheimer's Disease, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Attention Deficit Disorder, Multiple Sclerosis, Parkinson's Disease, Lou Gehrig's Disease. Kensington Pub. Corp., 1998.
  • 18. Masquelier, J., et al. Stabilization du collagene par les oligomeres procyanidoliques. Acta Therapeutica, 7:101-105, 1981.
  • 19. Tixier, J.M., et al. Evidence by in vivo and in vitro studies that binding of [pyc] to elastin affects its rate of degradation by elastases. Biochem Pharmacol, 33:3933-9, 1984.
  • 22. Laparra, J., et al. Etude pharmacocinetique des oligomeres flavonoliques. Plantes med et phyto, Tome XI, pp. 133-142, 1977.
  • 23. Robert A.M.; Groult, N.; Six, C.; Robert, L. Etude de l’action des oligomeres procyanidoliques sur des cellules mesenchymateuses en culture. Ii l’attachment des fibres elastiques aux cellules. (Study of the effect of procyanidolic oligomers on mesenchymal cells in culture. Ii attachment of elastic fibers to the cells.) Pat Biol, (30)6:601-7, 1990.
  • 24. Facino RM, et al. Free radical scavenging action and anti-enzyme activities of procyanidines from Vitis vinifera. A mechanism for their capillary protective action. Arzneimittelforschung, 44: 592-601, 1994.
  • 25. Kuttan R, et al. Collagen treated with catechin becomes resistant to the action of mammalian collagenase. Experientia, 37: 221-223, 1981.
  • 26. Porter, Lawrence J., Wong Rosalind Y. Chan, Bock G. The molecular and crystal structure of (+)-2,3-trans-3,4-trans-leucocyanidin [(2r,3s,+r)-(+)-3,3’, 4.4’, 5.7’-Hexahydroxyflavan] dihydrate, and comparison of its heterocyclic ring conformation in solution and the solid state. Journal of the Chemical Society; Perkin Transactions I 1985. pp. 1413-17.
  • 27. Masquelier, J. Proanthocyanidins et radicaux libres (Radical scavenger effect of proanthocyanidins), 1985.
  • 28. Uchida, S., et al. Condensed tannins scavenge active oxygen free radicals. Med Sci Res, (15) 1987. pp. 831-832.
  • 29. Ariga, T. Radical scavenging action and its mode in procyanidins b-1 and b-3 from azuki beans to peroxyl radicals. Agric Biol Chem, 54(10) 1990. pp. 2499-2504.
  • 30. Da Silva, R., et. al. Radical scavenger capacity of different procyanidins from grape seeds. Presented at a symposium, “Free radicals in biotechnology and medicine.” Royal Society Of Chemistry, London January 1990, pp. 79-80.
  • 31. Bauman, J., Wurm, G., Bruchhausen, F. “Hemmung der prostagladinsynthetase durch flavonoide und phenolderivate im vergleich nit deren 02 radikalfangereigenschaften” Arch Pharm, (Weinheim) 313 (1980) pp. 330-337.
  • 32. Facino, R.M., et al. Free radical scavenging action and anti-enzyme activities of procyanidines from vitis vinifera. A mechanism for their capillary protective action. Arzneimittelforschung, 44: 592-601, 1994.
  • 33. Kuttan, R., Donnelly, P.V., Di Ferrante, N. Collagen treated with catechin becomes resistant to the action of mammalian collagenase. Experientia, 37: 221-223, 1981.
  • 56. Blazso, G. Gabor, M. Oedema-inhibiting effect of procyanidin. Acta Physiologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, Tomus 56(2):235-240, 1980.
  • 89. Masquelier, J., et al. “Flavonoids et [pyc]” Int J Vit Nut Res, (49)3:307-311, 1979.
  • 106. Kidd, P.M. A review of nutrients and botanicals in the integrative management of cognitive dysfunction. Altern Med Rev 1999 Jun;4(3):144-61.
  • 107. Crook, T.H. The PS Factor: the key to peak mental performance for life. Mind Publishing Inc. 1999, ISBN 0-9685168-0-7.
  • 108. Kidd, P.M. Phosphatidylserine (PS): A Remarkable Brain Cell Nutrient, Lucas Meyer, Inc. Third Edition April 1998.
  • 109. Klinkhammer P., Szelies B., Heiss W.D. Effect of phosphatidylserine on cerebral glucose metabolism in Alzheimer's disease. Dementia. 1990;1(4):197-201.
  • 110. Kidd, P.M. Phosphatidylserine: the nutrient that accelerates all brain functions and counters Alzheimer’s disease: Keats Pub. 1998.
  • 111. Kidd, P.M. A review of nutrients and botanicals in the integrative management of cognitive dysfunction. Altern Med Rev 1999 Jun;4(3):144-61.
  • 112. Kidd, P.M. Phosphatidylserine (PS): A Remarkable Brain Cell Nutrient, Lucas Meyer, Inc. Third Edition April 1998.
  • 113. O'Brien, C., "Answers to ADD," Vitamin Retailer, March 2002.
  • 114. Cenacchi T., et al. Cognitive decline in the elderly: A double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter study on efficacy of phosphatidylserine administration. Aging, 5: 123–133, 1993.
  • 115. Maggioni M., Picotti GB, Bondiolotti GP et al. Effects of phosphatidylserine therapy in geriatric patients with depressive disorders. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 81: 265–270, 1990.
  • 116. Brambilla, F., Maggioni, M., Panerai, A.E., et al. Beta-endorphin concentration in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of elderly depressed patients—effects of phosphatidylserine therapy. Neuropsychobiology, 34: 18–21, 1996.
  • 117. Monteleone P., Maj M., Beinat L., Natale M., Kemali, D. Blunting by chronic phosphatidylserine administration of the stress-induced activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in healthy men. Eur J Clin Pharm, 43: 385–388, 1992.
  • 118. Heiss W.D., et al. Activation PET as an instrument to determine therapeutic efficacy in Alzheimer's disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1993 Sep 24;695:327-31.
  • 119. Funfgeld, E.W., Baggen, M., Nedwidek, P., Richstein, B., Mistlberger, G. Double-blind study with phosphatidylserine (PS) in parkinsonian patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer’s type (SDAT). Prog Clin Biol Res, 317:1235-46, 1989.
  • 120. Fahey, T.D., Pearl M. Hormonal effects of phosphatidylserine during 2 weeks of intense training. Abstract submitted to national meeting of the Amer College of Sports Medicine, June 1998.
  • 121. Fahey, T.D., et al. The hormonal and perceptive effects of phosphatidylserine administration during two weeks of resistive exercise-induced overtraining. Bio of Sport 15(3):135-44, 1998.
  • 122. Crook, T.H., et al. Effects of Phosphatidylserine in Alzheimer's Disease. Psychopharmacol Bull 1992;28(1):61-66.
  • 123. Engel R.R., Double-blind cross-over study of phosphatidylserine vs. placebo in patients with early dementia of the Alzheimer type. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 1992 Jun;2(2):149-55.
  • 124. Monteleone P., et al. Effects of phosphatidylserine on the neuroendocrine response to physical stress in humans. Neuroendocrinology 1990 Sep;52(3):243-8.
  • 125. Benton D,. et al. The influence of phosphatidylserine supplementation on mood and heart rate when faced with an acute stressor. Nutr Neurosci 2001;4(3):169-78.
  • 126. Crook, T.H. Treatment of Age-Related Cognitive Decline: Effects of Phosphatidylserine in Anti-Aging 33 Medical Therapeutics,Vol II, edited by R.M. Klatz, Health Quest Publications, Chicago, 1998, 20�29.
  • 127. Vannucchi, M.G., Pepeu, G. Effect of Phosphatidylserine on Acetylcholine Release and Content in Cortical Slices From Aging Rats.Neurobiol Aging 1987, 8(5), 403�407.
  • 128. Vannucchi, M.G., Casamenti, F., Pepeu, G. Decrease of acetylcholine release from cortical slices in aged rats: investigations into its reversal by Phosphatidylserine. J. Neurochem 1990, 55, 819�25.
  • 129. Pepeu, G., Giovanelli, L., Giovannini, M.G., Pedata, F. Effects of Phosphatidylserine on cortical acetylcholine release and calcium uptake in adult and aging rats. In Phospholipid research and the nervous system. Biochemical and molecular pharmacology. Horrocks, L.A., Freysz, L., Toffano, G. (Eds), Liviana Press, Padova, 1986, 265�271.
  • 130. Casamenti, F., Mantovani, P., Amaducci, L., Pepeu, G. Effect of phosphatidylserine on acetylcholine output from the cerebral cortex of the rat. J. Neurochem 1979, 32, 529�533.
  • 131. Casamenti, F., Scali, C., Pepeu, G. Phosphatidylserine reverses the age-dependent decrease in cortical acetylcholine release: a microdialysis study, Eur. J. Pharmacol 1991, 194, 11�16.
  • 132. Pedata, F., Giovannelli, L., Spignoli, G., Giovannini, M.G., Pepeu, G. Phosphatidylserine increases acetylcholine release from cortical slices in aged rats. Neurobiol Aging 1985, 6, 337�339.
  • 133. Mazzari, S., Battistella, A. Phosphatidylserine effects on dopamine release from striatum synaptosomes. In: Multidisciplinary Approach to Brain Development. Benedetta, C., Balazs, R., Gombos, G., Porcellani, G. (Eds.). Elsevier/North Holland, Amsterdam, 1980, 569-570.
  • 134. Monteleone, P., Beinat, L., Tanzillo, C., Maj, M., Kemali, D. Effects of Phosphatidylserine on the Neuroendocrine Response to Physical Stress in Humans.Neuroendocrinology 1990, 52, 243-248.
  • 135. Hamm, M. Ern�hrungswissenschaftliche Stellungnahme zur Ver�nderung der nutritiven Versorgung mit Phosphatidylserin (PS), 2002.
  • 136. Calderoni, G., Aporti, F., Bellini, F., Sonetti, A.C., Rubini, R., Telato, S., Xu, C., Canotti, A., Toffano, G. Phospholipids as pharmacological tools in the aging brain. In: Horrocks, L.A., Kanfer, J.N., Porcellati, G. (Eds). Phospholipids in the nervous system,Vol II, Physiological roles. Raven Press, New York, 1985, 11-19.
  • 137. Kaibuchi, K., Takay, Y., Nishizuka, Y. Cooperative roles of various membrane phospholipids in the activation of calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase. J. Biol. Chem. 1981, 256, 7146-7149.
  • 138. Raese, J., Patrick, R.L., Barchas, J.D. Phospholipid-induced activation of tyrosine hydroxylase from rat brain striatal synaptosomes. Biochem Pharmacol 1976, 25, 2245-2250.
  • 139. Gindin, J., et al. 1990, Effect of Soy Lecithin Phosphatidylserine (PS) Treatment on Daily Functioning and Self-Reported General Condition in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease, The Geriatric Institute of Education and Research Kaplan Medical Centre, Rehovot, and Hadassah Medical School, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel.
  • 140. Suzuki, S., Yamatoya, H., Sakai, M., Kataoka, A., Furushiro, M., Kudo, S. Oral Administration of Soybean Lecithin Transphosphatidylated Phosphatidylserine Improves Memory Impairment in Aged Rats. J. Nutr. 2001, 131, 2951-2956.
  • 141. Blokland, A., Honig, W., Brouns, F., Jolles, J. Cognition-enhancing properties of subchronic phosphatidylserine (PS) treatment in middle-aged rats: comparison of bovine cortex with egg PS and soybean PS. Nutrition 1999, 15, 778-783.
  • 142. Fritz, B. Phosphatidylserine: Have we found a Medically Proven Cortisol Antagonist at Last? IM February 1996, 74-75.
  • 143. Fritz, B. Phosphatidylserine: Can this natural supplement reduce cortisol elevation from workouts? Muscle & Fitness,October 1996, 98-100.
  • 144. Burke, E.R., Fahey, T.D. Phosphatidylserine (PS): Promise for Athletic Performance. Keats Publishing 1998,New Canaan, Connecticut, USA, ISBN: 0-87983-979-1.
  • 145. Burke, E.R. PS: An Answer To Intense Training.Nutrition Science News 1998, 3, 252-253.
  • 147. Le Bars, P.L., Katz, M.M., Berman, N., Itil, T.M., Freedman, A.M., Schatzberg, F.A. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial of an extract of ginkgo biloba for dementia. Journal of the Amer Med Assoc, 278 (16):1327-32, 1997.
  • 148. Waagepetersen, H.S., Sonnewald, U., Schousboe, A. The GABA paradox: multiple roles as metabolite, neurotransmitter, and neurodifferentiative agent. J Neurochem, 73:1335–42, 1999.
  • 149. Goddard, A.W., Mason, G.F., Almai, A., Rothman, D.L., Behar, K.L., Petroff, O.A.C., Charney, D.S., Krystal, J.H. Reductions in occipital cortex gaba levels in panic disorder detected with h-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 58:556-561, 2001.
  • 150. Cavagnini, F., et al. Effect of acute and repeated administration of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) on growth hormone and prolactin secretion in man. Acta Endocrinol, 93:149–54, 1980.
  • 151. Bhagavan, H.N., et al. The effect of pyridoxine hydrochloride on blood serotonin and pyridoxal phosphate contents in hyperactive children. Pediatrics, 1975;55: 437-41.
  • 152. ___. Along with riboflavin, vitamin B-6 deficiency has a primary role in the cause of emotional disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 141(1982):271-272.
  • 153. ___. Current data suggest that as many as 20 percent of medically cleared population of outpatient depressives may suffer from a vitamin B-6 deficit. The authors point out that nutrition, diet and vitamin levels have received very little attention in the psychiatric literature. Biological Psychiatry, 9:4 (1984):613-6.
  • 154. ___. Does depressive illness cause vitamin B-6 inadequacy, or vice-versa? Nut Rep Int, 27 (Apr. 1993):867-873.
  • 155. Martineau, J., et al. Vit. B6, magnesium, and combined B6-Mg: therapeutic effects. Bio Psy, 20:467-78, 1985.
  • 156. Dolphin, et al. (eds). Vitamin B6: pyridoxal phosphate. John Wiley & Sons, 1986, chapt. 17.
  • 157. ___. Inadequate intake of vitamins, particularly B-1, can result in mental illness. Clin. Neuro, 8 (Jul.--Sep. 1985):286-293.
  • [Click here for MORE...]